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The Spinning Wheel

The spinning wheel is an instrument for spinning a clump of fibers.

This tool consists of a spindle, usually of wood, finished by a head in which the branch of fiber is inscribed that is spinning, which incorporates a wheel, and a pedal or crank .

When we are first exposed to the device we might think that the actual wheel part of a spinning wheel is what does all of the work. In fact it does not take place of the spindle, what it does instead, is that it automates the twisting process, allowing the spinner to "twist" the thread without having to constantly do so manually which was a very lengthy process. The size of the wheel, however, allows you to more finely control the amount of twist the finished thread is given. The thread still ends up on a spindle, just as it did pre-wheel.

Natural Homemade Fruit Popsicles

Something a little different today… Just the other dayI remember the summer afternoons I spent playing with my friends in the yard and snacking on ice cream! My grandfather made it for us, it was fruit ice cream, natural, healthy and homemade. There is no better way to fight the heat and enjoy a little treat!

Kids will love it and if they also participate in the creation they will like it that much more!

Melon Popsicles

  • 1 Honeydew Melon
  • 1/2 cup sugar
  • 1/2 cup water
  • 2 lemons

We heat the water and sugar over medium flame, it is important that we do not stop stirring it so that the sugar does not stick. When the sugar is completely dissolved (it has to have syrup texture), we take it out of the heat and let it cool.

While the sugar syrup is cooling, peel the melon and clean it (remove the seeds). We cut it into very small pieces, we will need 4 cups of pieces (if they come out more we can set them aside for another occasion).

Squeeze the lemons and put your juice together with the syrup and half the melon pieces in a blender. Blend until smooth. Add the remaining pieces of melon and blend it well so that everything is integrated.

Pour the mixture into the molds and put it in the freezer. About an hour later the mixture will begin to thicken, it's time to stick the wooden stick in (if you are using those). Put the freezer back in until well frozen (about 5 hours).

Get to Know Yarn Stretch

Stretching is the thinning of a thread or wick by sliding fibers over each other. The numerical value of the E-stretch is given by the relationship between the final length of the and the primitive length prior to stretching. It's an abstract number, and it's always positive.

For example, if you have a thread with initial length 1m, feeding a machine that makes a stretch, and you get a thread with length 6m, then the produced stretch is calculated:

Stretching increases the output length, as a result, the thickness of the thread decreases, but the weight of the material on both sides of the machine remains constant. There is no reduction in the machine. Following the example, then the thread output has a length that is 6 times longer, but its diameter is one-sixth of the original thread.

As the purpose of the spinning is to obtain a thin mass of fibers (thread), it is expected that the material is fine-tuning its thickness during its pass in each of the processes, then, you must infer that every spinning machines perform a stretch. This is true and is one of the core principals of spinning.

Another important consequence of stretching is the parallelization of the fibers in the tape: Theoretically the thread could be taken directly to the spinning machine, but as the fibers are not yet parallel, would have a large number of ruptures, so it is necessary to carry out the thinning of mass of fibers in succession, in several stages. In this way, gradually the fibers straighten up when they slide over each other thanks to them being stretched.

The total stretching depends on:

  1. the type of material
  2. the content of short fibers
  3. the length of fiber

Combed Yarn

What was once an arduous process done by hand is now a highly specialized industrial technique. Combing the raw fibers that are used to make a thread or yarn is industry in and of itself. In this sector, the short fibers that carry unwanted plant material are removed, small impurities that still remain after the caring are separated and the fibers are processed.

This might seem like a waste, but these impurities are not beneficial to the

All this improves the uniformity of fiber length which is essential to achieve very fine yarns of good quality and strength.

The short fibers removed give rise to the sub product which is transported pneumatically to a press.

With regard to the production values stops achieved with state-of-the-art equipment fully automated, the order of ~70-75 kg per hour is reached, corresponding to about 500 strokes of the comb with a density of 80 gr/m. This high production is achieved thanks to computer synchronization throughout the line.

Costs today have been reduced dramatically compared to previous-generation machines, as significant energy savings have been achieved, fewer minor styling erasers thanks to excellent fiber selection and high machine efficiency and short machine downtime, among other improvements.

The fully automatic roll changer and thread splicer produce the best splice quality and the automatic roll transport system complete the features in the modern styling systems. Through these innovations the modern system was able to improve over the past machines

In the Public Interest

Leaders must connect with only one person at a time even in a large auditorium. Yet our leaders are no longer connecting, they are using the large auditoriums as a an amplifier for their harsh words and rhetoric. They demanded our alliance. These speeches are for "crowds," not for individuals. The words are not meant to connect with anyone personally. There is a danger of loving crowds, when the voice is not able to relate to the transformation of one person. Jesus was able to speak to great multitudes but he descended from the pulpit and healed and touched the afflicted hearts.

Our leaders must touch the heart before the head, the relationship precedes the results. Those in power should initiate the connection with others, and not expect them to bare the weight of communication.

This reminds me of Jeroboam. There was a great deal of confrontation with Israel, which occurred because Jeroboam and the people came up from Egypt. Rehoboam (Rehoboam was king only of the Kingdom of Judah) did not start any communication with them. Instead he sat down and waited for them to come to him. He reacted instead of triggering the dialog. And he never connected with anyone.

Does this have a bearing on our situation today?

What practical principles can we learn from this, from his attitude?

Instead of talking, he should have listened. We never see him listening intently, only getting what he wanted to hear and always talking. Instead of showing greed, he should have shown generosity. He was a man bewitched with power. That removed him from people and many options for good advice.
It was political maneuvering, rather than protecting his image, he should have protected his integrity.

What interested him was being accepted and putting on an image of relentlessness. He wanted to be feared. But you cannot rule through fear. The desire to be feared rather than respected is one that is but an illusion.

Instead of showing control, he must have shown compassion. His scolding and stern attitude was, according to him, to better control the people. But you can never control God's people with sticks and threats.

Instead of developing a selfish heart, he should have developed a heart of a servant. A servant to the public.

He only thought of himself, of his kingdom, and how to keep what Solomon had left him. They were there to feed his own petty interests and hunger for power. Instead of seeing through his own eyes focused on his own goals, he should have looked through the eyes of others.

Instead of falling in love with power, he should have fallen in love with God.

All the great men and women of God have one thing in common. Simply put: They connect with people. Connecting with people is the responsibility of the one who influences. Are our policy makers connecting with us?

Those Loud Whispers

"This is the blood of the covenant, which God has commanded you to keep."
Hebrews 9,20

Lord I take your word from (Matthew 26, 28), "this is my blood, which seals God's covenant, my blood poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. 29I tell you, I will never again drink this wine until the day I drink the new wine with you in my Father's Kingdom."

Classifying Fibers

The spinning is based on mechanical procedures and unlimited length with unlimited raw materials.

These materials or elements can be divided into 3 classes:

  1. Short filaments (short fiber) such as cotton, wool etc.
  2. Intermediate length filaments such as hemp, jute and wool.
  3. Filaments of determined length such as silk.

In the process we will first work with machines called flap, card, which is reduced to cleaning the fiber. The following machines of the process to regularize the base of the fiber for further processing..

When talking about yarn or yarns, or even of simple fibers twisted with each other, we talk about the base material (this is important no matter what the desired output is) and since ancient times, it has been marketed based on its quality, with a measure of length, thickness and weight.

Cotton yarns, wool, silk, etc., even if they are apparently cylindrical there is more variation, and still lack a lot of what we have come to expect in modern life, uniformity, since it does not have a regular diameter, therefore its thickness cannot be determined as a wire, etc.

Where it turns out that it can only be based on length and weight.

The classification of the fibers are in two groups:

  1. Constant Weight System
  2. Constant Length System

When it is necessary to refer to the thickness of a yarn or thread it is clear that it is difficult measuring it due to the small size and by the irregularity due to the twisting and tension of the yarn especially in the natural fibers.

An indirect system of expressing thickness was then used and the concept of numbering and title arose.

In spinning systems there are several forms of holder or numbering of yarns whether the source material is cotton, wool or synthetic.

There are several methods for numbering threads. The coexistence of all of them is due to the inertia of the custom, since with some only of them would be sufficient.

Numbers that describe the characteristics of a thread are called the title, and must be preceded by the technique that was used.

Numbering systems are classified into two groups well differentiated by their opposing approaches: Direct Systems and Reverse Systems.

The Many Uses of Thread

Special crochet threads are usually treated threads. They are very soft threads, 100% cotton. And, if you want to make quality items, of excellent quality.

The most important feature of these threads, which differentiates them from thread for other use, is that they are mercerized.

It is a special procedure for treating cotton. It was invented by JhJohnon Mercer in 1844. Mercer was an English scientist who specialized in textile issues. Later, in 1890 the system was perfected by H. A. Lowe. This process involves treating cotton fibers with sodium hydroxide. The mercerization swells, and brings shine and softness to the cotton strands.

The process of John Mercer, from where this word comes, mercerization, achieved a swollen fiber, with a lot of resistance and that managed to make the fiber better at absorbing the different inks and dyes. The problem was that during the application of this treatment, the total volume of material was greatly reduced.

H. A. Lowe's contribution to this system was to retain the tight cotton fiber during the process to prevent it from shrinking. He got what he wanted and also got a glossy finish for crochet threads.

This mercerizing process alters cotton fiber, and causes the walls of plant cells to inflate and transform into reflective surfaces. This causes the silk-like shine and softness of the crochet threads that we enjoy so much.

The current mercerizing system continues to use this process developed more than a hundred and fifty years ago. Some crochet threads have double mercerization, which gives them twice the strength and shine. They are more expensive, but useful when you need threads that have even more quality.

In crochet, in addition to using cotton as a raw material, other materials can be used. We can use wools of different types, such as mohair or cashmere. You can also use materials such as bramante, silk, raffia, macramé (a decorative textile made by knotting and weaving), metal threads: silver and gold, acrylics, fabric strips, leather laces and the list goes on.

There are countless different options in today's crochet threads. They are almost limitless and each one can help you continue to reach new levels of creativity.

An important rule when choosing a ball is to rub it against your skin to feel it in contact with the body. If the touch is soft and warm, it will be a good choice and you won't be disappointed when you make a wearable. This test should be done whenever we buy balls, but especially when we want to knit baby clothes (as even more care is needed), seek out threads you find skin is delicate, soft and smooth to your skin.

Tip: It is preferable to use threads that can be machine washed.

Crochet yarns are sold in 150 gram skeins and in 25, 50 and 100 gram balls. The balls are ready for use when they are bought, but the skeins, must be altered before using them, you will have to make them balls.

The ideal thickness of yarn will depend on the kind of work you plan to do. There are factors that can influence this thickness, such as spinning type, moisture, or storage.


This was written when I was sixteen, my parents had taken us on vacation to Lake Michigan for a week over summer break. It was a beautiful time and I spend a number of evening sitting outside on the bungalow's veranda just listing and watching the world unfold around me. During that time I wrote a number of poems this being one of them. Enjoy.

Cautious at first over the burning ground
Slowly smothered under the desire of greed
Foot falls gentle, that left no sound:
Stomped out by the shadow as if a weed.

Faint with light, by shadow dappled, alas, graced with cloud
The boats glide, graceful and fair
More bright than boat grave with silver:
More fine than wave divine with gold.

How grave is the faint with glass grass:
My ship, dew-smoothed, my fine one?
How dreary is the by shadow dappled grass!
By darkness graced, by silver crowned, but, graceful with cloud.

Shadow-caressed, cloud-graced, and, dappled with sun?
By sun smoothed with forgiveness, embraces the forest:
The sparrows glide, lazy and quick,
The ships flee, lazy and divine.

A Short History of Spinning

The spinning wheel is a very old tool and has often been important as a symbol. Among the best known is that of St. Elizabeth of Hungary who spun for the poor.

Wrongly associated, popular culture has linked the wheel to the tale of Sleeping Beauty. This error arose from the proliferation of illustrations showing the protagonist pricking herself with a hypothetical needle on a wheel. However, the wheel does not consist of any needle-like part. Originally, Sleeping Beauty was punctured with a spindle.

In India, the wheel is a symbol of the struggle against British imperialism. As part of his campaign of civil disobedience, Gandhi convinced his followers that the best way to attack the British Empire was not to buy Manchester's textile products and make the clothes themselves by hand. The campaign inspired many people and succeeded in peacefully hurting the interests of powerful colonialism, helping the peoples of India achieve independence. Thus, the wheel became one of the symbols of India's independence.

The wheel first appears in about 3000 BC.

The spindle spinning wheel arrived in Europe from the oriental region towards the end of the 12th century. It began to spread in Central Europe in the 13th century, as the source evidenced by prohibitions on the use of the spindle spinning wheel for the guilds associated with cloth making.

The following prohibitions are documented, for example: 1224 Venice, 1256 Bologna, 1268 Paris, 1280 Speyer, 1288 Abbeville, 1292 Siena, 1305 Douai. In the crafts regulations of the Weber von Speyer it is expressly permitted only for the production of yarn.

The reason for the restriction to yarn is controversial. The bans may have been enacted to protect the high quality of the wool yarn produced with a hand spindle. For example, the so-called Livre des metiers from Bruges (ca. 1349) states that wool spun with the spindle spinning wheel is generally too weak, uneven, insufficiently rolled and too knotty. The spindle spinning wheel remained banned for guild use in some regions until the 15th and 16th centuries.

The first pictorial proof of a (still hand-driven) spinning wheel dates back to 1480. The inventor of this completely new functionality of the spinning device is unknown. Leonardo da Vinci later designed a spinning mechanism with a longitudinal spinning wheel, which probably did not spread. A foot powered was developed in the middle of the 17th century.

The first mechanical spinning machines of the 18th century were used as templates for both of the above-powered spinning wheel systems. The slightly older Spinning Jenny is based on the two-stage settling technique of the simple spindle, while the spinning frame developed almost simultaneously used spinning wheels.

Even after the introduction of more modern spinning machines, the spinning wheel was still used in the domestic area and was not drive-out of style until the 19th century.

Even today, modern spinning wheels are being built and developed by numerous craft companies, mostly for the needs of leisure spinners. There are even electrically operated spinning "wheels" in which the pulling of the thread is still done by hand, while the flywheel is replaced by the electric drive. This spinning equipment are mainly used in small businesses.