Torsion Calculation a Calculation of Turns

What is torsion and how do you calculate it? The general study of torsion is complicated because under this type of request the cross section of a part in general is characterized by two phenomena:

  1. Tangential stresses appear parallel to the cross-section. If these are redecorated by a vector field their flow lines "circulate" around the section.
  2. When the above stresses are not properly distributed, which always happens unless the section has circular symmetry, sectional wings appear that cause the deformed cross sections.

As any dedicated spinner would know and those who have started to study the manufacture of yarns intended for the construction of textiles, they know in advance that in order to be able to spin a certain amount of fibers with a certain length, it is necessary to apply a necessary number of twists for the fibers to come together, with inner fiber cohesion (fibers have to bind to others with mechanical help); this cohesion is built upon in each of the different existing fibers and helps the fibers to join with each other throughout the finished thread. This means that before looking for an effect by twisting a thread on a garment it is essential to apply twists to the short fibers for the construction of the threads, otherwise it would make it difficult or nearly impossible to manufacture them.

The main object of applying twists to the wicks and threads during spinning is to provide them with the necessary resistance for handling and that these can be used in different applications.

It is understood as torsion, the action that binds a set of fibers, by providing them with a certain amount of turns in the direction of their longitudinal axis, and as a consequence the portion of fibers acquires a cohesion and consistency thus causing greater resistances and overall thread strength, the degree will depend on the angle of inclination that forms the coil that binds to the fibers, but you have to be careful because an excess application of torque and you will have broken fibers and all of its resistance would be lost.

Resistance and Breakage

Thread thickness is the diameter of surgical suture material.

In addition to the knot, thread strength is decisive for the durability of a surgical seam. It depends on the material used and the thickness of the thread. As a general rule, the suture material must ensure a sufficient tear resistance and is chosen as thinly as possible in order to keep the tissue damage to a minimum. In the case of absorbable suture material, the thickness also has an influence on the dissolution process to be provided by the body or its duration.

The thread thickness printed on a packaging is always the minimum thickness. In most cases, the actual thread thickness is slightly higher, but below the upper range limit. Two different measuring systems are used to indicate the thread thickness,

The American system and the metric European system which measures in tenths of a millimeter.

WeightGunze CountCommon Use
Light60 wt#60/3bobbin or appliqué
Thin50 wt#50/3bobbin or appliqué
Regular40 wt#40/3Quilting
Upholstery30 wt#30/3Decorative
Heavy20 wt#20/3Decorative

Reverse Systems

They express how much a certain thread weight measures when compared to other threads across the scale. They are called inverse just because the larger the number, the thinner the thread which seems illogical at first but is in fact simpler once you understand more of the finer points of spinning.

Also known as reverse or direct systems, it applies to fibers of limited length such as cotton, wool, etc.

The number is both higher and smaller is the diameter, in this weight system is fixed and the length is variable.

The formula is:

  • N'K L/ P
    • No. Number
    • Constant Ko
    • L. Length
    • P. Weight

Now we will look at how this is applied to actual measurements. Numberings or thread title for this system is as follows for both the English numbering system and the metric:


First we will look at the metric system to see how it is defined, many students of spinning prefer this system over the English as it is easier to work the numbers mentally. But in the end it is due to personal preference.

  • The metric number expresses the thousands of meters per kilo of each cape, followed by the number of capes.
  • The metric system is the most common of all the systems described.
  • For example, a thread consisting of 2 ends of 60,000 m/kg each is expressed as Nm 60/2.
  • To know the footage that has a kilogram of thread, simply divide the footage of a cape by the number of ends that form it.
  • For example, a 60/2 would have 30 thousand m/kg and a 60/3 would have 20 thousand m/kg.

English Number

And now the English numbering system with the metric measurements included for comparison.

  • The definition is the number of 840-yard skeins (768.08 m) weighing 1 lb (English pound 451.59 g)
  • It is enough to know that you have to multiply by 1.7 to go from the English system to the metric.
  • This numbering has always been the usual for cotton.
  • For example the cotton yarn Ne 30/1, which is an Nm 50/1

My son, Absalom

With this passage we will culminate the series about David's life. In retrospect, I see his life as divided into two parts. The first is ascending, from Goliath's death until David consolidates himself into the throne ending the civil war. People are at peace and the whole country is starting to thrive. God has promised to ensure that David's descendants had a continued reign. What more could David ask for? That's where he's careless. The second part is descending and begins the day he did not go to war and walks through his palace and sees Bathsheba and sends her to search. To cover up adultery, he commits murder and everything becomes such a dirty affair that even David admits it when the prophet Nathan confronts him. David regrets it, but the consequences of what he did would follow for the rest of his life.

The sin that began with David, continues as a cancer with his family when his firstborn Amnon, with the same weakness for women, brought his half-sister Tamar to his room and there he raped her. David was very angry, but he did nothing to help Amnon suffer the consequences of what he had done. Perhaps he expected it to be forgotten, but in rare cases sin has no further consequences. His third son, Absalon, waits two years to avenge his sister Tamar but at the end of the day kills Amnon and flees. David again laments but takes no action. Five years pass and he finally reconciles with his son without judgment or punishment for offense and sin committed.

It seems that it was finally over but only happened that the cancer went to remission but it was still there because for the next four years, Absalon was undermining the people's confidence in David until he rebels against his father. So what began with a look at a beautiful woman who was bathing culminates in another civil war affecting the whole town. First David, then his family, and then the nation.

For David the King, the victory over Absalon was an absolute and decisive one that ended the risk of losing the throne. But for David the father, it was a tragedy of greater proportions. The worst thing that can happen to a parent is losing their son or daughter. In David's case, he was the third son he lost, the first son of Bathsheba, Amnon and now Absalon. That is why David cries, "My son, Absalom! My son, my son, Absalom! If only I could have died in your place! Absalom, my son, my son!"

David arranged his accounts with God when he asked forgiveness for what he did with Bathsheba. But what he did marked him for the rest of his life. This should teach us the importance of keeping a clean life before God. Like cancer, sin must be attacked firmly and aggressively in our lives before it takes root and affects my family and those around me. And when I fail, because I will fail, I must immediately come running at your feet repentant to reconcile me and ask you to cover me with your grace and mercy.

A Child’s Bedtime Prayer

John Henry Johnstone

Now I lay me down to sleep.
I pray the Lord my soul to keep.
If I should die before I wake,
I pray to God my soul to take.
If I should live for other days,
I pray the Lord to guide my ways.

Father, unto thee I pray,
Thou hast guarded me all day;
Safe I am while in thy sight,
Safely let me sleep tonight.
Bless my friends, the whole world bless;
Help me to learn helpfulness;
Keep me every in thy sight;
So to all I say good night.

Basic Spinning

Many people feel that while, interesting, spinning is a space intensive hobby. And while that is true to some extent, it is not a requirement. While you will have better quality thread at a much faster rate it is possible to spin simply with your fingers, but to do so more accurately and quickly you use a spindle.

The hand spindle is a stick with a small disc at its end. These discs can be made of wood, stone, clay, or metal and have a hole in the center for the spindle. The tool is called a drop spindle because it is lowered or "dropped" during spinning. The thread is tied to the spindle and twisted as the wheel rotates. The spinner adds more fibers to the yarn, taking them from a flake that holds with the hand or has been rolled onto a stick called the wheel.

However, the spinster often stops and winds the thread produced in the spindle. The spinners have made yarns like this all over the world until the mechanical spinning lathe was invented.

Machining Quality Material

The high production in the spinning process to save time leads to the reduction in yarn quality. The technological changes that have occurred today are remarkable. Modern machines reach the production rate of 60 – 100 kilograms/hour which is remarkable when compared to only 5 – 10 kilograms/hour which was possible until 1970. Great advantages have brought us new machinery, as they reduce production time and less physical effort.

Today spinning equipment is fed by rolls directly, the operator, according to the type of machines will be in charge of a section and that section will be constituted from four to eight teams. The fundamental operations applied by the card are stretching and continuous cleaning for the case of natural fibers.

The cotton card differs from the bar in that the latter is larger because of the physical characteristics of the wool, another type of card is the one used for the production of non-wovens that serves to manufacture disposable cleaning materials, mouth covers, layers of diapers etc.

In the conventional spinning processes there is the tendency to omit the flap due to the accommodation or adaptation of continuous production processes, by direct feeding mainly in medium to higher quality fibers, groups of feeders, loaders are used and mixers coupled and in sequence with the card. Although the flap is also still applied in lower quality fibers, for thick articles, for cleaning materials and in opening of short, artificial and synthetic fibers.

Washing Your Crochet Garments

To wash the fabrics we produce when we crochet it is preferable to always do it by hand, which is easier on them and better than by machine. The continuous rubbing of the clothes in the washing machine deteriorates the yarn much faster than if washing by hand, so we do it the traditional way.

For this we will use warm water. If the water is too hot you can deform the fibers and cause it to become unsightly.

It is ideal to use a mild detergent. It will serve to use any of those that are on the market and that are indicated for wool and delicate garments.

We will mix the detergent with the water before inserting the clothes and not after.

We will wash the garment carefully, without twisting the fabric or tightening it.

Finally we will rinse it very well with abundant water, also warm.

Once washed, we'll let it lose excess water. For this it is best to lay the crochet work horizontally.

Depending on the garment in question, we can dry it between two towels, which will trap the excess moisture of our fabric.

If we hang a piece of crochet too wet, it will deform by the weight of the water. When this happens it is hard to make it regain its original size and shape.

When we want to wash a lace that we have just finished making (I dreaded this the first time), we will follow the same washing guidelines and let it dry between towels.

To finish drying and prevent it from losing its shape, we will finish the drying by gently hanging it on a line or rack, you can use clothes pins.

The drying process will always be done in the shade if you hang it outside, to prevent the sun from yellowing or altering the color of our garments.

If, despite the possible deterioration, we want to machine-wash the fabrics, we will first have checked that the original material (I keep a record of what I used when producing a garment) allowed this type of cleaning and under what conditions. The ball gives us this data when you buy them so save your packaging (or at least the care instructions). If we have doubts, we'll first wash the piece we did as a sample.

We will use a washing bag or net when placing it in a washing machine, this reduces stress during washing. It needs to be closed tightly, because if the bag does not close well, our fabric will come out in the spinning process.

It is also important that the bag fits the size of what we want to wash. If the bag is too large, it will be the same as not using it at all. If this is the case, we must adjust the bag in such a way that it adapts to the volume of the garment it contains. Otherwise the item can still deform.

When the washing process is complete there should be minimal damage to the item.

In Silver Meadow

Where does the wind carry us? It sails us across the sea and sweeps us through the meadows.

Glide with me on sun-graced sea
The waves glide, fair and grave.
The sparrows glide, divine and inseparable?
My meadow, blessed with silver, my divine one.

Let Your Fantasy Lead Your Wheel

Fantasy threads are made in twists, combining different types of these into various forms. Fantasy threads are used in sweaters and woven dresses, for upholstery fabrics and for the decoration of fabrics for men's and women's suits. These threads are often made with mixtures of natural fibers and made by man. In any case, they are designed for a specific end use, and can be varied by numerous possible combinations of fibers, twists, dubbings and colors.

Types of fantasy threads:


It is one of the most used fantasy threads. Bouclé (French hairlock) is a type of fabric whose surface resembles rip binding. Bouclé is made partly or entirely from hair yarn and effect twirl, often using knots, bumps and slings. It is characterized by tight waves that are projected from the body of the thread at moderately regulated intervals. Bouclé yarn is used for woven sweaters, knitted and flat knit dresses and upholstery fabrics. The fabric can be used for dresses and coats as well. The ratiné yarn is similar in construction to the bouclé, but the waves are continuously twisted and are not spaced.

Chenille Thread/Stumpwork

Chenille is a term derived from a French word meaning caterpillar. It refers to a luxurious yarn especially soft, with hair coming out everywhere. Combed wool is usually mixed with other fibers. This type of chenille yarn is used for clothing made of knitted fabric for external use. In thicker threads, chenille is used to obtain prominent superficial effects on suits and coats. .

Another type of chenille yarn is often called chenille skin, used for chenille rugs.

Metallic Thread

The metal thread is a sheet of metal, aluminum, gold or silver, coated on both sides with a flat or colored plastic film and then cut into narrow ribbons. Plastic-coated metal wires do not become obscured. Metal threads have been produced by joining aluminum sheets between two layers of clear or transparent plastic film. This is the thread called the metal leaf type. A second class called.

Metallic type uses a layer of polyester film (mylar) treated with vaporized metal that is subsequently joined between two layers of transparent film.

Spotted/Mottled Threads

It is made by twisting many times in a short space one end of thread around another, causing some or elongated places (specks) on the surface of the thread. Sometimes a binder is used to hold the speck in place. Specks are usually spaced at varying intervals. Spotted threads are sometimes also called button threads.

Paper Thread

It is made by cutting and twisting wet paper to form individual thread ends, which are then woven into knitting work or in foot and weft fabrics like other threads. Since these yarns have strength they are suitable for making burlap, fiber mats, car seat covers, hats and handbags.

Plastic Thread

It is the coated yarn made of natural or synthetic fibers and that has been submerged in plastic that adheres forming a protective layer. It has the peculiarity of being highly resistant to tensile, elongation and the chemical agents that act on it, advantage that differentiates it from metal threads, very sensitive to oxidation and attack of acidic products.


Splashed is the thread with an elongated button that has been twisted forcefully and attached to a base thread. A seed thread is a thread provided with very small buttons, often made from man-made threads and applied to a natural or dyed base thread.

The button is a soft, elongated knuckle. The thread that forms these buttons can be continuous or can be made by wick flakes inserted at intervals between tie-down threads.